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Diagnosis

The aim of this section is to describe prenatal screening procedures and tests designed to assess the functioning of children and adults. It will cover not just the technical aspects of these procedures, but the impact which the process of testing per se has on parents and on individuals who are themselves thought to have intellectual and other disabilities. A number of genetic and behavioural syndromes are discussed in some detail, in many cases with statistical information on their prevalence in a variety of populations. The effects of maternal malnutrition and pre- and antenatal environment on the development of intellectual disabilities are also brought to the attention of the reader. These authors offer their experience of initiatives which have addressed these causes, often very successfully.

Page Antenatal Screening
Antenatal screening is the process of identifying those at high risk of a disorder. Prenatal diagnosis establishes whether or not the disorder is definitely present.
Page Autism
Although commonly associated with general intellectual disabilities - approximately 75% of people with autism have a non-verbal Intelligence Quotient (IQ) below 70 - autism can also occur in individuals of normal, or even superior intelligence.
Page Autistic Spectrum Disorders
Autistic spectrum disorders comprise a group of conditions within the category of childhood-onset pervasive developmental disorders (ICD-10, DSM-IV).
Page Controversial Issues in Autism: The Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR) vaccine
The number of children diagnosed with autism is rising. What is being done to find out the causes of autism? Is the Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR) vaccine responsible for the increased prevalence?
Page Confronting the Distortions: Mothers of Children with Down Syndrome and Prenatal Testing
The development of screening tests, including first trimester ultrasound and maternal serum screening tests, has already reshaped the landscape of prenatal diagnosis. Prenatal testing, once limited to women considered high risk, is increasingly a routine part of antenatal care.
Page Down's Syndrome
Down's syndrome affects people of all ages, races, religious backgrounds and economic situations. It is estimated that there are around 60,000 people with Down's syndrome living in the UK, but since Down's syndrome has never been a notifiable condition, accurate figures are difficult to obtain.
Page The Experience of a Cognitive Assessment
If I were to send Psychologists to schools I would make sure that they understand about the child's culture if the child is from an ethnic group, make sure the child and the family know what is happening and try not to call the child in the middle of their lessons.
Page Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: An Overview
An overview of Fetal Alcohol spectrum disorders
Page Fragile-X Syndrome
In addition to being associated with characteristic physical and behavioural features, Fragile-X syndrome causes intellectual disabilities ranging from mild to severe. It is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and is second only to Down's syndrome as the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability.
Page The Genetics of Down's Syndrome
This article aims to explain what is known about the genetics of Down's syndrome.
Page Prenatal Testing and Informed Choice
Summary of Prenatal Testing and Informed Choice
Page Facilitating Informed Choice in Prenatal Testing: How Well Are We Doing?
If we value women's ability to make informed choices about prenatal tests as highly as we value reliable laboratory tests, evidence-based quality standards need to be developed for the information and support women are given at all stages of the process of prenatal testing.
Page Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS)
PWS is characterised by hyptonia and feeding problems in infancy, hypogonadism, characteristic facial features, short stature, developmental delay, obesity and an obsession with food and eating.
Page Prenatal Screening: A Personal View
A personal viewpoint from Paul Adeline
Page Recognizing Psychosis in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities Who Do Not Use Speech
In patients who do not communicate verbally, there are many cues that can lead a psychiatrist to recognition of psychosis.
Page Down's Syndrome and Autistic Spectrum Disorder
Overview of Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Down's Syndrome
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